|Title||Present perfect tense Usage The present perfect tense|
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Present perfect tense Usage: The present perfect tense puts emphasis on the result Ex: She has written five letters. n expresses an action that is still going on. Ex: School has not started yet. n expresses an action that stopped recently Ex: She has cooked dinner. n expresses a finished action that has an influence on the present Ex: I have lost my key. n expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Ex: I have never been to Australia. n
The Present Perfect Tense Connecting past and present use this tense to show a connection between past and present situations.
The Present Perfect Tense Like a bridge between the past and the Ø present. Past Present I arrived in Seattle in 2000. It is 2009. Present Perfect I have lived in Seattle for nine years. I have lived in Seattle since 2000.
I have studied English since 2000 this morning I came to the U. S. yesterday
To form the present perfect: HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE Statement I You We They Negative have (‘ve) gone She has He (‘s) It gone I You have not (haven’t) We gone They She has not He (hasn’t) It gone Question I Hav You gone? e We They She Has He gone? it
Questions They have studied English since 2000. Have they studied English since 2000? Short Answer: Yes, they have. No, they haven’t (=have not).
Ø She has lived in Seattle since last year. Ø Has she lived in Seattle since last year? Ø Yes, she has. Ø No, she hasn’t.
Ø How long have you owned this car? Ø I have owned this car since 2002. Ø I have owned this car for two years.
The adverbs are frequently used in the present perfect: n For: When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for + a period of time. Ex: I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been married for six months. n Since: When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a point in time. Ex: I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June. We have been at this school since last year. n adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still) 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle. Ex: Has she ever met someone famous? I have never visited London. I’ve never been so sick. Already, yet and still: It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence.
Present Perfect Tense The autumn has already arrived How do you know?
Present Perfect Tense FORM: have / has + past participle Affirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before. Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before? Negative: They haven’t seen the film before. He hasn’t seen the film before.
Present Perfect Tense Uses of the present perfect 1 - Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately Why are they so happy? They have just won a prize so they are really pleased
Present Perfect Tense 2 - Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
Present Perfect Tense 3 - It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time. I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungry I haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty
Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the Present perfect tense. I have been to France three times When did you go there last? I went there last Summer
Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple Ø Ø Ø Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week. Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students. My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year. Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago. I’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him?
Note the difference n n n He has been to London. Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about London. He has been in London for two weeks. He is still in London. Where’s Peter? He has gone to London. He is in Italy or on his way to London.
Helen/finish /yet/her work Helen hasn’t finished her work yet.
Ali/back/just/from Italy/come Ali has just come back from Italy.
Kamal /a camel/never/ride Kamal has never ridden a camel.
Kevin /just/his house/sell Kevin has just sold his house.
Adam/ in hospital/a week/be Adam has been in hospital for a week.
Akram /homework/do/his/already/math Akram has already done his homework.
Pelin/yet/homework/do/her? Has Pelin done her homework yet?
Selim /already/his milk/drink Selim has already drunk his milk.
Omar /fall asleep/in class/just Omar has just fallen asleep in class.
I/never/a big fish/catch/ I’ve never caught a big fish.
I/not fly /I was 7 years old/a kite I haven’t flown a kite since I was 7 years old.
The train hasn’t arrived in Brisbane yet
I’ve already visited Ayers Rock
I’ve just seen a very original advertisement
Have you ever seen a kangaroo?
How long have you stayed in Melbourne?
Present perfect continuous USAGE: The present perfect continuous tense puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours. Ø action that is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001. Ø finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon. Ø
Form of present perfect continuous: Positive Negative Question I/we/you/they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking? He/she/it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking? Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive: all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long? , the whole week
Reminder: Verbs with stative meanings are not used in the progressive. The present perfect, NOT the present perfect continuous, is used with stative verbs to describe the duration of a state that began in the past and continue to the present. Ex: I have known Alice since he was a child. Incorrect: I have been knowing Alice since he was a child.
Present perfect simple vs. Present perfect continuous Form Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous Have/has + V-ed/ V 3 Have/has + been + V-ed/V 3 Usage The present perfect simple The present perfect expresses an action that is still progressive expresses an going on or that stopped recently, action that is still going on. It but has an influence on the present. puts emphasis on the It puts emphasis on the result. duration or course of the action. Adverbs frequently used For, since, already, ever, all day, for 4 years, since never, yet, still, etc. 1993, how long? , the whole week, etc. Example I have written five letters. I have been playing football since 3 o’clock.
Ø We can use both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous to describe an activity that started in the past and continues up to the present and possibly into the future. Ex: They have been studying English for three years. They’ve studied English for three years. Ø We can use the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous with lately and recently. Ex: I’ve been working hard lately. I’ve done a lot of work lately.